U.S. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, the first to show the basic biological process called protein synthesis can be studied in the adult stem cells. This is the goal scientists have been trying to achieve.
Researchers Southwestern Medical Center University of Texas examined the protein production (translation) process in the new study confirmed that protein synthesis is not only the basis of dry cell regulation, for their regenerative potential is also crucial.
“We had no one to reveal a new insight into the field of cell biology.” Study participants, a professor of pediatric genetics Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Professor of Pediatrics, Children’s Research Institute, said Dr. Sean Morrison, ” never been studied in adult stem cells had protein synthesis. This study found that not only tells us something new about the stem cell regulatory mechanisms, but also open our ability to study differences in protein synthesis between various types of cells in the body, we believe this is a yet known biological world, it is possible that different cell types at different speeds and protein synthesized, and these differences is extremely important for cell survival. ”
Harvard Medical School laboratory of Dr. Adrian Salic told puromycin antibiotic chemically modified, allows researchers to imaging and quantification of individual cells in vivo protein synthesis number.The first author of the paper, Morrison laboratory of Dr. Robert AJ Signer postdoctoral researchers found that the reagent can be used to measure the hematopoietic system, stem cells and other cells synthesize new proteins.
Amazing results of the study show that different types of blood cells are generated per hour, the number of different proteins, particularly the number of stem cells of protein synthesis as compared to other hematopoietic cells is much less.
Dr. Morrison said: “This result suggests that hematopoietic stem cell protein synthesis rate is lower than in other hematopoietic cells.”
The researchers say these findings also apply to genetic mutations in a mouse model of a ribosome assembly occurs, they found that the rate of stem cell protein production decreased by 30%. In addition, the scientists also by removing the tumor suppressor gene in hematopoietic stem cells Pten increases the rate of protein synthesis. In both cases, the function of stem cells were significantly impaired.
These observations confirmed the results together, the protein synthesis rate of hematopoietic stem cells need to be highly regulated, the rate of increase or decrease in protein synthesis would damage stem cell function.
Morrison said: “Surprisingly, when the ribosome mutant mice with Pten mutant mice reared together on stem cell function returned to normal, we are significantly delayed, and in some cases completely blocked the formation of leukemia All this is because the protein to generate stem cells return to normal. would like a double negative to positive as well. ”
Many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer, the mutant proteins are associated with the forming machine. And why is there such a result to be further understood. These studies found that increasing such a possibility: protein synthesis is necessary for changing the formation of many diseases.
Dr. Signer said: “Many people think that protein synthesis is a housekeeping function, because it occurs in all cells behind the event is the fact that many features are highly regulated housekeeper, they have not been adequately studied in order to recognize between cells. difference, I think, we see in this study is only the tip of the iceberg, in different cell types are generated in the process of protein may be completely different. ”