In a new study, researchers at Tufts University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Partners in Health Foundation, the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and elsewhere reported that cholera bacteria phage can be forced to give up in order to survive their virulence .
Arc cholera bacteria. (Source: Baidu Encyclopedia)
Our immune system in fighting cholera bacteria between humans may have unknown allies – are called bacteriophages bacteria killer virus. In a new study, researchers at Tufts University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Partners in Health Foundation, the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and elsewhere reported that cholera bacteria phage can be forced to give up in order to survive their virulence . Important finding is that the mutant phage prey escape cholera occurred in the course of human infection. Related articles published in the “eLife” magazine.
Dr. Kimberley Seed first author and corresponding author Dr. Andrew Camilli, (Both men are from the Tufts University School of Medicine) and their collaborators collected cholera patients in Haiti and Bangladesh were positive phage stool samples, DNA sequence analysis of the phage-resistant properties and cholera bacteria. Haiti and Bangladesh often have cholera outbreaks.
They first identified the cholera bacteria from Haiti by changing their DNA, to fight the phage. They compared the years collected from Haiti and Bangladesh bacteria to determine whether the change occurred on several occasions in these two countries, or only in individual groups or alone.
The research team found that the process occurs in humans infected with the cholera mutations across time and geography, in order to use their virulence, or continue to make humans sick ability to exchange capacity against phage. Alternatively, in some patients with a mutant cholera more conservative way to retain virulence, but at the expense of the environment, the ability to grow the best. In either case, the cholera bacterium seems to use some of the important ability to obtain the ability to survive under the fierce impact of the phage.
“This is the first time we see that cholera bacteria in infected humans process in order to protect themselves from bacteriophages, which suggests that these phages are good for our first kill cholera bacteria from the patient’s body, and second, by weakening the bacterial gene make it fall from the patient, which makes them unsuitable to survive in this environment, or can not lead to other human infections, “senior author Andrew Camilli said he was Howard Hughes Medical Institute researcher, but also Molecular biology and microbiology professor at Tufts University School of Medicine.
“This important finding suggests that we may be able to harness the power of bacteriophages to treat people suffering from cholera, or as an alternative to antibiotics to prevent human recent cholera outbreak in the country,” Camilli said.
“Cholera bacteria infect humans occurred in the course of this rapid evolution, indicating that the phage caused a great threat to this., And these two countries observations suggest that this is not a one-time discovery, it is possible that during the cholera outbreak has always existed, “says first author Seed, he is now the University of Michigan molecule, an associate professor of cell and developmental biology. “In addition, almost all bacteria can be infected by bacteriophages, either where the bacteria was observed, so that the cholera found, it is possible to expand to begin to understand the evolution of phage and bacteria.”
Camilli and Seed in a study published last year in the journal “Nature” for the first time provide evidence that the phage can get a fully functional and adaptive immune systems. They observed that the phage can use the adaptive immune system, to lift the cholera phage defense systems, such that ultimately destroy the bacterial hosts the phage. This study supports the use of bacteriophages to prevent or cure bacterial infections cholera this point, and extended this idea: the phage can be very complex bacteria predators. The team is currently studying the details of this particular military competition between phage and bacteria, in order to better understand how the impact of the cholera epidemic phage, and how we can further use of bacteriophage to treat or prevent infection.